# Introduction into Analytical Ultracentrifugation and Optics

Workshop Slides

- Sedimentation velocity - basic theory and understanding of what the various terms mean
- Sedimentation coefficient- balance of forces.
- Buoyancy
- Mass conservation and the Lamm equation

- Frictional coefficient, Stokes radius, Rs, and interpretations of Rs. Facts and fiction
- Non-interacting mixtures of components. Component boundaries.
- Interacting mixtures of components. Reaction boundaries
- Sedimentation equilibrium- basic theory
- Balance of fluxes, balance of energies
- Fundamentals of non-linear least-squares curve fitting
- Designing an experiment
- Choosing the setup
- Cells and centerpieces- which ones and for what purpose
- Underused cell types to consider
- Choosing the method
- Rotor speed choice for velocity
- Rotor speed choice for equilibrium
- Tips and tricks
- Cell maintenance
- Temperature equilibration
- Oil in the chamber and other natural disasters
- Instrumentation
- Accuracy versus precision
- Optical system types
- How they work
- Uses and limitations of each
- Example applications

# Ultracentrifugation at High Concentrations

Workshop Slides

- Concentration scales
- Natural thermodynamic scale
- Natural hydrodynamic scale
- Problems that arise from these differences
- Thermodynamics of high concentration fluids
- Solute components versus species
- Dispersed phases versus components
- Four classes of systems considered:
- Single solute component dilute fluids
- Example: most samples analyzed now
- Single solute component concentrated fluids
- Example: drug formulations
- What may we learn from equilibrium AUC?
- Multi-component dilute fluids
- Examples: cell lysates
- What may we learn from equilibrium AUC?
- Multi-component concentrated fluids
- Examples: serum, urine, etc.
- What may we learn from equilibrium AUC?
- Analysis methods
- Where current methods leave off
- Possible future approaches
- Examples from the 4 classes of systems
- Hydrodynamics of high concentration fluids
- Nonequilibrium thermodynamic framework for analysis
- R-type versus non R-type frames of reference... a problem for AUC?
- We do not have the software to analyze these systems, yet:
- What would need to be done
- Sedanal's approach
- What do we see with velocity analysis for the 4-classes?

**Instructor:** Thomas Laue, University of New Hampshire, USA